Commonly used machining methods for mechanical parts

Commonly used machining methods for mechanical parts

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There are various parts processing methods, and the selection of processing methods is also different according to the specific conditions and requirements of the parts being processed.
According to whether the material is removed, it can be divided into non-cutting processing and cutting processing, according to whether it is automatic, it can be divided into CNC automatic processing and non-automatic processing, and according to whether it is electric discharge, it can be divided into electric discharge machining and mechanical processing.
Commonly used ordinary cutting processes include: turning, drilling, boring, planing, drawing, milling and grinding, etc., as well as CNC machining.
The most common machining methods today are turning and milling, but other machining operations have their own specialties, let us help you understand them!


  1. Definition: The cutting method in which the workpiece rotates as the main motion and the turning tool as the feed motion. The main movement of turning is the rotation movement of the part, and the linear movement of the tool is the feed movement, which is especially suitable for machining the rotary surface. Because turning is more common than other machining methods, lathes often account for 10%-50% or more of the average machine shop of the total number of machine tools. According to processing needs. Such as horizontal lathes, vertical lathes, turret lathes, automatic lathes and CNC lathes.
  2. Application: In the single-piece small batch production, various shafts, discs and sets of parts are mostly processed by horizontal lathes or CNC lathes with wide adaptability. Parts with large diameter and short length are mostly processed by vertical lathes. When mass-producing small and medium-sized shafts and sleeves with inner holes and threads with complex shapes, turret lathes or CNC lathes should be used for processing. Turning is the main processing purpose of processing rotary bodies. It can be processed on the lathe: outer circle, end face, taper, turning surface, winding spring, etc.


  1. Definition: The cutting method in which the rotation of the milling cutter is the main movement, and the workpiece or the milling cutter is used for the movement. Milling is one of the main processing methods of planes. During milling, the rotation of the part with the milling cutter of the worktable is the main motion. Milling machines include horizontal milling machines or vertical milling machines, as well as large gantry milling machines. These machine tools can be ordinary machine tools or CNC machine tools. CNC milling machines with tool magazines are also commonly referred to as machining centers or milling machining centers.
  2. Application: Milling is mainly used to process planes (including horizontal, vertical and inclined planes), grooves, forming surfaces and cutting off. In single-piece and small-batch production, lifting table milling machines (both horizontal and vertical) are used for processing small and medium-sized workpieces. Gantry milling machine can be used when processing medium and large workpieces. The gantry milling machine is similar to the gantry planer. It has 3 to 4 milling heads that can work at the same time, and has high productivity. It is widely used in batch and mass production. In single-piece small batch production, some disc-shaped forming parts can also be processed on vertical milling machines with end mills.


  1. Definition: A method in which the drilling tool and the workpiece move relative to the workpiece and perform axial feed motion to machine holes on the workpiece. Drilling is one of the most basic hole processing methods. Drilling is often carried out on drilling and lathes, but can also be carried out on boring and milling machines. Commonly used drilling machines are desktop drilling machines, vertical drilling machines and radial drilling machines.
  2. Application: In single-piece and small-batch production, small holes (D<13 mm) on small and medium-sized workpieces are usually processed by desktop drilling machines, and larger holes (D<50 mm) are usually processed by vertical drilling machines; holes on large and medium-sized workpieces It should be processed by a radial drilling machine, and the holes on the workpiece of the rotary body should be processed on a lathe. In batch and mass production, in order to ensure processing accuracy, improve production efficiency and reduce processing costs, drilling dies, multi-axis drills or combined machine tools are widely used for hole processing. Small and medium diameter holes (D<50mm) with high precision and small roughness often need to be semi-finished and finished by expanding and reaming after drilling.


  1. Definition: The cutting method in which the rotation of the boring tool is the main motion, and the workpiece or the boring tool is used for the feed motion. Boring processing is mainly carried out on milling and boring machines and boring machines. Boring is the further processing of forged, cast or drilled holes. Boring can be divided into rough boring, semi-fine boring and fine boring. Boring is divided into general boring and deep hole boring. General boring can be done on a common lathe, and the boring tool can be fixed on the lathe tailstock or on a small tool holder. Deep hole boring requires a special deep hole drilling and boring machine, the boring tool should be equipped with a boring stalk, and a hydraulic pump station should be added to use the coolant to remove the iron filings. The single-edge boring tool is to install the boring head on the boring bar, and its aperture size is guaranteed by adjusting the overhang length of the cutter head, which is mostly used in single-piece small batch production. Boring on an ordinary milling and boring machine is basically similar to turning.


  1. Definition: The cutting machining method in which the planer and the workpiece reciprocate in a horizontal direction relative to a straight line. Planing is one of the main methods of plane processing. It is the most common processing method for plane processing of single-piece small batch production. Common planer machine tools include bullhead planer, gantry planer and slotting machine. Due to the characteristics of planing, it is widely used in maintenance workshops and mold workshops.
  2. Application: Planing is mainly used in single-piece small batch production. Planing is mainly used for machining planes and is also widely used for machining straight grooves. The maximum planing length of the head planer is generally not more than 1000mm, so it is only suitable for processing medium and small workpieces. The gantry planer is mainly used to process large workpieces, or to process multiple medium and small workpieces at the same time. Slotting machine, also known as vertical planer, is mainly used to process the inner surface of the workpiece, such as keyway, spline groove, etc., and can also be used to process polygonal holes, such as square holes, hexagonal holes, etc. Particularly suitable for machining blind holes or inner surfaces with obstructed shoulders.


  1. Definition: A method of machining the inner and outer surfaces of a workpiece by using a broach to move axially under the action of tension. The multi-tooth broach is used to cut a thin metal layer from the workpiece one by one, so that the surface can achieve high precision and small roughness value.
    Cutting with a broach as a tool. When the broach moves in a straight line relative to the workpiece, the machining allowance of the workpiece is sequentially cut off by the teeth on the broach with increasing sizes. Usually, it can be formed in one working stroke, which is a high-efficiency finishing method. However, due to the complex structure of the broach, the high manufacturing cost, and the certain speciality, broaching is mainly used for mass production. According to the different characteristics of the machined surface, broaching is divided into internal broaching and external broaching. The scope of application of broaching:
    Although the inner broach is a fixed-size tool. But each inner broach can only broach one size and shape of inner surface. The inner broach can process through holes of various shapes. Such as round holes, square holes, polygon holes, spline holes and internal gears, etc. Also possible are keyways, T-slots, dovetails and tongues on turbine disks, etc. External broaching can process flat surfaces and grooves of various shapes.


  1. Definition: The grinding tool rotates at a high linear speed to process the surface of the workpiece. Grinders include cylindrical grinding, internal grinding, centerless grinding and so on.
  2. application:
    (1) Cylindrical grinding: Generally, it is carried out on an ordinary cylindrical grinder or a universal cylindrical grinder. Cylindrical grinding includes vertical, horizontal, comprehensive, and deep grinding methods.
    (2) Grinding of holes: It can be carried out on an internal grinding machine or on a universal cylindrical grinding machine, which can process cylindrical holes, tapered holes and shaped inner surfaces.
    (3) Grinding of the plane: Circumferential grinding – using the outer surface of the grinding wheel for grinding. End Grinding – Grinding with the end face of the grinding wheel.

wire cutting

  1. Definition: Wire cutting generally refers to wire EDM, which belongs to the category of electrical processing. Using the instantaneous high temperature of the electric spark, the local metal can be melted, oxidized and corroded, thereby forming a processing method. According to the wire speed, WEDM can be divided into high-speed reciprocating wire EDM commonly known as “fast wire”, low-speed unidirectional wire EDM commonly known as “slow wire” and vertical self-rotating EDM Three types of wire cutting machines.
  2. application:
    (1) Processing of various precision molds: such as punching molds, composite molds, powder metallurgy molds, extrusion molds, plastic molds, bakelite molds, etc.
    (2) Processing various disc-shaped parts: such as gears, sprockets, cams, etc.
    (3) Processing of various precision parts and templates.

Hope the above helps you.

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