What are dry cutting and wet cutting? What advantages do they have?

What are dry cutting and wet cutting? What advantages do they have?

Content Catalog

Dry cutting corresponds to wet cutting, and they are different processing techniques for lathe cutting. The biggest difference between them is that wet cutting needs to add cutting fluid, while dry cutting does not need to add cutting fluid.

The role of cutting fluid in traditional cutting process

To understand what dry cutting and wet cutting are, it is first necessary to understand the role of cutting fluids in traditional cutting processes.

Cutting fluid is usually one of the indispensable production factors in most machining, and plays an important role in ensuring machining accuracy, improving surface quality and production efficiency.
With the enhancement of global environmental awareness and the increasingly stringent requirements of environmental regulations, the negative effects of cutting fluids on the environment are becoming more and more obvious.

According to statistics, 20 or 30 years ago, the cost of cutting fluid was less than 3% of the workpiece cost. In high-productivity production enterprises, the cost of cutting fluid supply, maintenance and recycling would account for 30% of the workpiece manufacturing cost. 13%-17%, while tool costs only account for 2%-5%. In the total cost related to cutting fluid, about 22% is the processing cost of cutting fluid.

If 20% of the cutting process is dry cutting, the total manufacturing cost can be reduced by 1.6%.
Green manufacturing with no pollution to the environment is considered as a sustainable modern manufacturing model. The dry cutting without any cutting fluid in the processing process is a green manufacturing process to control the source of environmental pollution. It can obtain clean and pollution-free chips, save a lot of costs such as cutting fluid and its treatment, and can further reduce Cost of production.

Therefore, the direction of future cutting is to use as little cutting fluid as possible. With the development of high temperature resistant tool materials and coating technology, dry machining has become possible in the field of mechanical manufacturing. Dry cutting technology came into being under such historical background.

Advantages of Dry Cutting

Dry cutting is not simply to stop using cutting fluid, but to ensure high efficiency, high product quality, high tool durability and reliability of the cutting process while stopping using cutting fluid, which requires dry cutting with excellent performance Tools, machine tools and auxiliary facilities replace the role of cutting fluid in traditional cutting to achieve real dry cutting.

In addition, dry cutting also has the following advantages: the chips are clean and pollution-free, easy to recycle and process; save cutting fluid transmission, recovery, filtration and other devices and corresponding costs, simplify the production system, reduce production costs; no environmental pollution .

Advantages of Wet Cutting

Compared with dry cutting, wet cutting has little advantage, but in the actual processing process, there are also some situations where cutting fluid should be used:
1) Finishing of stainless steel and aluminum alloys – used to prevent metal particles from adhering to the surface structure

2) Milling superalloys at low cutting speeds – used to lubricate and cool parts

3) Cast iron milling for wetting and flushing away dust to protect the environment and health and ensure part accuracy

4) Milling of thin-walled parts to prevent geometric deformation

5) When processing deep cavities, a minimum quantity lubrication system (that is, compressed air containing a small amount of special oil) can be used to assist chip removal

Hope the above content can help you!

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