Quickly understand the various types of machine tools commonly used for machining parts

Quickly understand the various types of machine tools commonly used for machining parts

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The most common processing equipment in the machining industry is the machine tool, which is the machine that makes the machine, also known as the “work machine”. Machine tools can be divided into various types according to processing methods or processing objects. The common ones are: lathes, milling machines, drilling machines, grinding machines, wire cutting machine tools, etc.;

According to the control method of machine tools, it can be divided into copying machine tools, program-controlled machine tools, CNC machine tools, adaptive control machine tools, machining centers and flexible manufacturing systems, of which the most common is CNC machine tools.


A lathe is a machine tool that mainly uses a turning tool to turn a rotating workpiece. Lathes are mainly used for cutting rotating surfaces of various sizes and shapes, as well as helical surfaces. Examples are shafts, disks and other workpieces with surfaces of revolution. In addition, drills, reamers, reamers, taps, dies and knurling tools can also be used for corresponding processing on the lathe. It is the most widely used type of machine tool in machine building and repair shops.

Lathes can be divided into horizontal lathes and vertical lathes according to the placement of their spindles.

Horizontal lathe

suitable for turning inner and outer cylindrical surfaces, conical surfaces, forming rotary surfaces and annular grooves, turning sections and various threads, and can perform drilling, reaming, reaming, tapping, threading and knurling. processing. Although the ordinary degree of automation is low, and the auxiliary time in the processing process is also more, but because of its wide processing range and good general performance, this type of machine tool has been widely used and popularized in the machining industry, and it is a machine tool. It is one of the typical and representative processing equipment in the industry, and it is also one of the indispensable processing equipment in the mechanical processing industry.

Vertical lathe

suitable for the processing of various frame and shell parts, and also suitable for processing the inner and outer cylindrical surfaces, conical surfaces, end faces, grooves, cutting, drilling, expanding, and reaming of various parts. , with the help of additional devices, machining processes such as threading, end face turning, profiling, milling and grinding can also be realized.

Milling machine

A milling machine is a machine tool that mainly uses a milling cutter to machine various surfaces on a workpiece. Mainly used for processing plane (horizontal, vertical), groove (keyway, T-shaped groove, dovetail groove, etc.), toothed parts (gear, spline shaft, sprocket), helical surface (thread, spiral groove) and various surfaces. In addition, it can also be used to process the surface of the revolving body, the inner hole and the cutting work.

Milling machines can be divided into ordinary CNC milling machines and machining centers according to whether they have a tool magazine or not.

Ordinary CNC milling machine

CNC machine tool processing is to divide the motion coordinates of the tool and the workpiece into the smallest unit amount, that is, the smallest displacement amount. According to the requirements of the workpiece program, the numerical control system moves each coordinate by several minimum displacements, so as to realize the relative movement of the tool and the workpiece to complete the machining of the parts.

Vertical CNC milling machine (vertical machining center)

A vertical CNC milling machine with a tool magazine, usually called a vertical machining center, its main feature is the use of multi-blade rotary tools for cutting, which can perform plane, groove, Processing of tooth parts, helical surfaces and various curved surfaces, especially with the application of CNC technology, the processing range of this type of machine tool has also been greatly improved. Compound processing such as drilling, boring, reaming and tapping has very broad practicability and popular significance

CNC machining center

CNC machining center is a high-efficiency automatic machine tool composed of mechanical equipment and CNC system suitable for processing complex parts. It is also one of the CNC machine tools with the highest output and the most widely used in the world. The CNC machining center concentrates the functions of milling, boring, drilling, tapping and thread cutting on one device, so it has a variety of processing procedures and techniques, and has strong comprehensive processing capabilities. It can complete many processing that cannot be completed by ordinary equipment, and is suitable for some single-piece processing or medium and small batch multi-variety production with complex shapes and high precision requirements.

The CNC machining center is characterized by high machining accuracy and stable machining quality; it can also perform multi-coordinate linkage to process parts with very complex shapes; in addition, when the machining parts change, usually only need to change the CNC program, which can save production preparations time;

In addition, the machine tool itself has high precision and high rigidity, and can choose a favorable processing amount, and the productivity is high (generally 3 to 5 times that of ordinary machine tools).

Hope the above content can help you.

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